of Chemical Technology and Research
Intentions and Accomplishments.
Department of Chemical Technology and Research - DCTR - was created in 1977. Academician Gutyrya V.S., Prof. Sklyar V.T. and Prof. Shkaraputa L.M. defined the core area of research as development of scientific basis of industrial production bioorganic, organic and petrochemical products. They also formulated department's mission statement and philosophy. The core factor in defining these areas was recognition of the fundamental difficulties in transferring laboratory level syntheses and recipes into high volume industrial production. Only by means of creating and employing complex mathematical models to describe the chemical reaction patterns and dependencies, one can develop approaches of efficient large-scale production, creation and optimization of appropriate equipment tool-sets. In light of the chosen R&D direction, the efforts of the Department's staff are focused on analyzing the mechanisms, kinetics, thermodynamics, thermophysics, hydrodynamics of chemical interactions, creating and enhancing chemical process models, developing and optimizing the production equipment, procedures and technical know-how.
DCTR researchers (Shkaraputa L.M., Kononov O.V., Tyshchenko
L.O.) were first to discover that electrophilic addition of chlorine to
olefins in water may proceed according to both associative as well as
the dissociative mechanisms. Thus, the criterion for differentiating areas
of bi- and tri-molecular interaction was uncovered. Based on fundamental
chemical acts, for the first time the correlations describing the speed
of formation of the products were determined, and conditions enabling
determination of the current concentration of olefines vs. conductivity
of the reaction mixture were uncovered, thus considerably simplifying
determination of kinetic constants. The mathematical expressions that
adequately describe the process were established, the algorithm of optimization
and calculation of the nonstationary modes were developed, that was realized
in the original methods of generating 3-chlor-4-oxy- and 3,4-dichlorthiolane-1,1-dioxides
(Shkaraputa L.M., Kononov O.V., Sklyar V.T.).
The department has conducted (Shkaraputa L.M., Bespalyj
A.S., Danilenko V.V., Tabakov A.V.) large scale selection of the alternative
raw material and development of compounding and technological processes
to synthesize composition binders from inefficiently utilized substances
and byproducts of oil refining (oil slurry, sour tar, asphalt-extract
mixtures (AES), tar, rubber wastes, etc) for road construction and coke
technology. The ways of affecting quality factors were found. Effective
alloying admixtures and accessible catalysts which enable generating binders
without involving traditional air oxidation were offered. The new binder
recipes were recognized as original inventions. It was shown that the
use of cavitation influence not only radically improves component mixing,
but due to its high-energy impact enables the factor of 4-12 acceleration
of the chemical processes of generating binders via compounding and oxidation.
The dependences between geometry of the supercavitational mixer, modes
of circumfluence and terms of oxidation were investigated, the mathematical
model of the supercavitational mixer and calculation methodology of its
construction were created (Shkaraputa L.M., Tyshchenko L.O., Shevchenko
L.A.). The technology for generating high-quality compositional
binders (bitumen slime binders - "BSB", complex binder asphalt-Goudron
- "CBAGU", complex binder asphalt-Goudron bitumen - "CBAGU-B")
were developed and implemented at Krementchug oil refinery (Shkaraputa
L.M., Danilenko V.V., Sklar V.T., Bespaly A.S., Tabakov A.V.) to produce
200,000 tons/year binders for road construction and briquetting of coke.
The use of tar, sour tar and oil slurry, promoted improvement of the ecological
aspects of production.
Hundreds of thousands of tons of binders "BSB",
"CBAGU", "CBAGU-B", " ¬" and "CBL"
have been produced. Implementation of these technological processes for
production of compositional binders allowed significant reduction of energy
costs while utilizing sour tar, oil slurry, wastes, and practically eliminating
harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
The original synthetic decontamination detergent
composition was designed (Krentkovska O.Ya., Shkaraputa L.M.,
Kukhar V.P.) and applied at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant for
decontamination and laundering of clothing and sheets in cold water (from
+5 oC) based on the special assignment
from the Ukraine Ministry for Chernobyl. The production technology was
developed, the experimental lots of the new synthetic detergent and decontamination
composition was produced and proved its effectiveness at JV "Complex".
"Sulfokarbation- " is registered as the protectant for seeds of sugar beets, wheat, corn, barley, rape, buckwheat, millet and potato sprouts (Shkaraputa L.M., Sasinovich L.M., Danilenko V.V., Kotenko S.≤., Tyshchenko L.O., Shevchenko L.A.). It allows 2 to 3 fold reduction in costs associated with preparing wheat seeds, significantly increasing production yields. SKK application methodologies were recognized as original inventions. The Ministry of Agrarian Policy has defined the need for products of this group in the amount of 3000 tons per year. Introduction of SKK resulted in investments of over $200,000 in Ukrainian economy.
Worldfamous Japanese companies "Sankio Ko Ltd" and "Sumitomo Corporation" have officially recognized that "Sulfokarbation- " was on par with one of their flagship products - protectant Tachigaren. There wasn't a single agrochemical in this class developed throughout the entire history of USSR and independent Ukraine. Later on, based on the success of SKK, a whole series of chemical methodologies was developed for plant protection via the surface contact mechanism (Shkaraputa L.M., Danilenko V.V., Al≥mova O.V., Kotenko S.≤.).
By expanding the methodology of generating N(1,2-dioxothiolan-3-il) potassium dithiocarbamate jointly with the National Medical Academy the original highly effective antimycotic drug "“ŚÓbon-dithiomikocid" was conceived and its technological processes developed and optimized (Shkaraputa L.M., Kononov O.V., Sasinovich L.M., Danilenko V.V., Tyshchenko L.O., Shevchenko L.A., Kolyadenko V.G., Stepanenko V.≤.). Research of its toxicity and specific activity was showed that it is much safer than the majority of antimycotics and antiseptics. It suppresses the malignant fungi Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, etc, and a number of bacteria of intestinal and coccal groups.
The clinical trials of this drug showed that it is safer and more effective than the known klotrimazol and mikozolon drugs, and that it enables to shorten the treatment term by 25 %. The Ministry of Health of Ukraine has registered the substance "“ŚÓbon-dithiomikocid" and the two medical forms created on its basis (one - ointment and one - powder for solution preparation). 309 antifungal drugs were registered in Ukraine's history with only two of them developed domestically in Ukraine and one of these two drugs was "“ŚÓbon-dithiomikocid". The production of ointment "“ŚÓbon-dithiomikocid" was established with nearly 65,000 packs sold to date.
Application of extruded polyolefin coatings is one of the most effective means of passive anticorrosive protection. Their unique advantage is high physical-mechanical, dielectric and anticorrosive properties. However, such isolating coatings are typically applied when pipes are heated to 150-220 oC (Shkaraputa L.M., Mitrokh≥na L.L., Morozova ≤.P., Al≥mova O.V., Abros≥mov V.F.). Department researchers have designed original materials which enable application of the extruded polyethylene coatings at as low temperatures as 15-20 oC. The series of tests conducted by NBP "Ukrtruboizol" plant has experimentally proven that the coatings developed at DCTR had much better adhesion to steel and exceeded the DSTU 4219, GOST R 51164 and DIN 30670 standard specifications, while their radius of sheet detachment during cathode polarization was only 2-3 mm, with the specification of up to 11 mm. At the same time their production, installation and maintenance costs can be significantly reduced by eliminating the need for expensive pipe heating, cooling and chemical deposition on equipment. This newlydeveloped "cold" surface coating technology is on par with the world's leading edge methodologies.
Departments' list of publications includes 4 books
and 300 journal articles, while 70 patents were granted. Two of the researchers
were granted Doctor of Sciences Titles, while eight - defended Candidate
of Sciences Dissertations. For the past 14 years Department members supported
review and publication of the "Catalysis and Petrochemistry"
journal (Tyshchenko L.O., Shevchenko L.A., Shkaraputa L.M.).
Leonid M. Shkaraputa, Doctor of Sciences (Techn.), Professor.
Address: 50, Kharkivs'ke Shosse, Kyiv-160,
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